1. Increased poaching was at least partly to
    blame.二零一五年至二〇一四年张开的一项调查研讨猜想,自二〇〇七年以来,十多个国家的大象数量下落了五分二;另一项商讨推测,二〇〇七年至二零一四年间,大象数量减小了逾10万头,即总量的20%。而偷猎的扩展一定是原因之一。

ROBINSON:大约具有的象牙皆感到着制作而成雕刻品。而中夏族民共和国的象牙雕琢由来已经比较久。完整的象牙将被精益求精,并神奇地与别的一些同样或分歧材质的雕刻件组合到一只。

长久以来,环境保养学家一向顾忌中夏族民共和国的扩张会对宇宙产生影响。他们所顾忌的,不独有是碳的投放,还牵挂有朝15日,印度支那虎会因为大家为了拿走虎鞭这种无用的春药而被消除,大象也会因为大家为了获得象牙作为雕刻礼物而被杀戮。但是,随着中中原人民共和国变得逐步具备,情况却大不相符了。2018新岁的三条情报注脚,大家对情形最大的郁闷其实是不合实际的。

The ban on trading ivory is unfair but
necessary象牙贸易禁令虽有失公正,但很有必要Easing it would bring an
increase in poaching放宽禁令只会促成偷猎的充实Nearly 6,000 species of
animals and about 30,000 species of plants are listed in the
variousappendicesof the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITESState of Qatar to protect them against
over-exploitation.《濒临灭绝的危险物种国贸左券》(CITES)的逐条附录共列出了近6000种动物以致近30000种植物,为的是尊敬它们免受过度开荒。But
as CITESconvenesits three-yearly decision-making conference in Geneva
this month, one animal, as so often in the past, will attract much of
the attention: the African
elephant.不过,当CITES前段时代于河内实行其四年已经的裁断大会时,一种过去常被谈到的动物将再度抓住公众口普查及的好感:它就是澳洲象。The
elephant is in many ways CITES’smascot. It was rescued in 1986 from what
seemed inevitable extinction after half the population had been wiped
out by poaching in just a decade.That year elephants were included in
CITES’s Appendix I, under which virtually all international trade in
their products is banned.
Theslaughterslowed.从众多地方来说,大象都是CITES的吉祥物。1989年,仅在短短的10年间,偷猎就招致大象的数目裁减了近四分之二。在那年,大象被列入了《濒临灭绝的危险野生生命个体种国贸合同》附录一,遵照附录一的分明,大概幸免了装有有关大象相关产物的国际贸易。大象的猎杀有所减缓。This
month’s meeting will consider competing proposals about how absolute the
ban should be, since in some countries elephant populations have
recovered. Countries seeking a modest relaxation have a strong case to
make. But it is not strong enough. The ban must
stay.由于某个国度的大象数量已经具备恢复生机,前些日子的议会将就有关禁令实践绝对程度的争议性议事原案张开商量。希望禁令适度放宽的国家有着强盛的说辞,但理由还非常不够充足,禁令必需保留。Understandably,
countries that have done a good job protecting their elephants feel this
is unfair. They point out that they have devoted huge resources to the
elephant, through the costs of law enforcement
alone.那多少个在保卫安全徽大学象方面做得很好的国家感到那是不公道的,大家得以领会。他们提议,单单就执法费用,他们就为大象的珍重投入了大气能源。And
the real burden of all this is borne by poor local people who are in
competition with wildlife for resources, and sometimes in conflict with
it—elephants can be destructive. People and governments, so the argument
goes, need to have an economic stake in the elephants’ survival. The
ivory trade would give them
one.而具备这一个实际上是由地点的贫寒百姓来负担的,他们须求和野生动物争夺能源,不经常以至会和野生动物发生冲突——大象也是全体破坏性的。依照这种意见,人民和政党要求从掩护大象生存中取得经济平价。象牙交易正是给了他们那样二个空子。That’s
why Zambia wants its elephants moved to the slightly less restrictive
Appendix II, which would allow some trade in, for example, hunting
trophies.那正是怎么赞比亚可望把他们国家的大象转移至稍稍宽松一些的附录二,附录二是同意诸如狩猎战利品之类的贸易的。Four
other southern African countries (博茨瓦纳共和国, Namibia, South Africa and
ZimbabweState of Qatar, whose elephants were moved to Appendix II 20 years ago, want
to be allowed to trade in their products, which, despite the change in
status, they have mostly been prohibited from
doing.其余八个亚洲南边国家(博茨瓦纳共和国、飞米比亚、South Africa和津巴布韦)的小象早在20年前就被移至附录二了,它们希望被允许开展大象相关制品的交易,固然这几个国家的大象数量有所变动,但它们仍被取缔开展大象相关制品的贸易。To
understand why these reasonable-sounding proposals should be rejected,
consider what has happened to elephant numbers since CITES most
recentlyauthorisedsome legal trade, when Botswana, Namibia and South
Africa were allowed in 二〇〇七 to sell a fixed amount of ivory to Japan, as
a one-off. Elephant numbers started falling
again.为了了然那么些听上去合理的建议为啥应该被谢绝,我们不要紧看看在CITES近几年获准了一部分有关大象的合法交易后,大象数量所发生的调换呢。二〇〇五年,Botswana、微米比亚和South Africa承认一回性往南瀛发卖一定数量的象牙。大象的数量随着初始回降。A
survey conducted in 二〇一六-15 estimated that elephant numbers had fallen
by 五分之三 across 18 countries since 二〇〇五; another estimated a decline of
over 100,000 elephants, a fifth of the total number, between 二零零五 and

The government says it will also educate the public on the consequences
of ivory trading for elephant populations. The Obama administration
already has shut down almost all trade in ivory in the U.S. Robinson
says the Chinese decision may well convince other countries that trade
in ivory such as Vietnam and Japan to do the same.Christopher Joyce, NPR
News.

China远不是动物福利的风花雪月。巧合的是,在象牙被禁销的当日,中中原人民共和国将驴皮的进口关税从5%下调至2%,那是当年的第二个转移。通过水煮驴皮取得的驴胶也是一种思想的药物(照片中的驴皮很恐怕是销到中中原人民共和国市道,图中的照片摄于Kenya)。相关职员说, 
 
这一行动对满世界的驴的多少会促成威迫,即便很难说清楚哪些构成劫持,终归二零一六年有4400万头驴,何况数量还在腾飞,如若不出意外的话,中夏族民共和国对更对驴的必要会促成驴数量的加码。但那也必定形成驴胶价格的水长船高(如图所示).

澳门新普京下载 1

北京

政坛提出,他们还要将有关象牙交易与大象数量之间的因果关系告知大伙儿。奥巴马政坛一度关闭了全美大概全体的象牙交易。罗宾森说,中中原人民共和国的这一调节大概对其余一些同意象牙交易的国家,例如越南社会主义共和国、东瀛,爆发积极影响,使得他们做出相同的仲裁。

The natural world may have less to fear than expected from China’s rise

澳门新普京下载,JOYCE:近来中华夏族民共和国一度同目的在于前年末关闭象牙的合法交易市镇。罗宾森称,生态环保者们从二〇一六年中国和U.S.A.二国政坛,运转有关甘休中华夏族民共和国象牙交易难点的提出的价格要价时,就渴看着那份申明了。

Environmentalists have long fretted about the impact that a rising China
will have on the natural world. They worry not only about carbon
emissions but also that, one day, the last tiger will be killed so its
penis can be turned into an ineffective aphrodisiac or the last elephant
slaughtered so its tusks can be carved into a gift. Yet as China has
grown richer, it has changed. Three pieces of news at the start of 2018
suggest that some of the worst environmental fears are not being
realised.

JOYCE(Joyce):而中华则是象牙要求量最大的商海。

The closure of the domestic ivory business (the first of the changes)
goes back to a deal between Barack Obama, then America’s president, and
Xi Jinping, his Chinese counterpart, in 2015. They promised a “nearly
complete ban” on ivory sales. America duly banned transactions in 2016,
except for those of century-old antique pieces. China closed a third of
its ivory-carving workshops in early 2017 and the rest in the past few
days. Illegal sales will doubtless continue. In 2017 officials in Hong
Kong seized over seven tonnes of illegal ivory, the largest haul for 30
years. Hong Kong’s ivory market, which is regulated separately, remains
open, but it is due to be phased out by 2022.

(本文的Slovak语源文本来自于51VOA,译文为自家原创,招待调换指正)

China’s actions seem to be having the desired effect. A study for Save
the Elephants, a charity in Kenya, found that the average price of a
kilogram of good-quality elephant tusk in China had fallen from $2,100
in 2014 to $730 in 2017 (see chart). The ban that has just taken effect
is likely to drive prices down further. Elephants are still being
slaughtered in vast numbers. It is even possible that the fall in the
price of ivory may cause poachers to slaughter more beasts, since they
need more tusks to make the same amount of money. But eventually, making
ivory worth less should reduce the incentive to poach.

澳门新普京下载 2

This is not the only case in which the government has sought to moderate
the environmental consequences of Chinese tastes. A campaign led by a
former basketball star, Yao Ming, helped slash demand for shark’s fin
soup, a delicacy. Imports of dried fins fell from 4,800 tonnes in 2004
to 20 tonnes in 2014. The government also banned shark’s fin soup from
official banquets and the sale of any edible product from endangered
species, such as pangolin, whose scales are used in traditional Chinese
medicine.

ROBINSON: Almost all the ivory is for carving.China has had a history of
doing so. Whole tusks are carved into elaborately assembled pieces of
one kind or another.

如若说那是二个碰上,那么也是三个令人值得欢欣的撞击。中中原人民共和国在变得慢慢具备的同一时间,其对情状难点的情态也变得更其严穆认真。一句话来讲,对于全部人来说都以便于的。

It didn’t. In fact,the killing got worse. That’s mostly because the ban
didn’t cover older ivorytaken before the 1989 ban. So what’s happened is
people are still killingelephants, but passing off their ivory as old.
And therefore legal to trade.John Robinson is with the Wildlife
Conservation Society. He says efforts tostop the supply of ivory at the
source inAfricahave not been very successful.

2018.01.06期 p21

JOHN ROBINSON:Addressing the demand is absolutely essential if we’re
going to deal with the poaching issues.

UNTIL the end of 2017, carved elephant tusks were still sold legally in
China.International trade in ivory had been banned by the government
since 1990, but not domestic transactions. At a shop in a glitzy mall in
Beijing, the manager showed off his prize exhibit: a carving the size of
a football of 30 ivory spheres, one inside the other, each moving
separately and intricately carved.It was an example of an ancient
craftsmanship, and one that has no future. On January 1st China banned
ivory sales. The last ivory-carving factories and shops (including the
one in Beijing) closed.

ROBINSON: Certainlyclosing down domestic ivory inChinawill have a
dramatic impact. The Chinese market is the largest ivory market inthe
world.

当真,临时是因为中华夏儿女民共和国的今世化给条件带给的影响最大——这多亏近年来现身的第八个转移。中中原人民共和国不仅是社会风气上碳排量最大的国家,也是世界上最大的排放物回笼循环利用国,世界上超过贰分一上述的塑料废品被出口运出中国张开管理。循环回笼即便有十分的大的裨益,但究竟是个比较浑浊的事情。在四个特别回笼利用电子零器件的镇里,百分之九十的小不点儿血液中铅含量超标。
从10月1日起,中中原人民共和国取缔了席卷家庭塑料在内的24类垃圾的入口,这一举动应当能够改良中华夏儿女民共和国本身的条件,但对于像United Kingdom这类将抛弃物运到中中原人民共和国的国度来讲却成了难题。应该回笼组织领导说那是“对我们的多少个宏伟的打击”。

  1. Robinson says it’s an announcement conservationists have been
    waiting for since 2015 when U.S.and Chinese officials started
    negotiating an end to China’s trade.

结束前年终,象牙雕刻品还是在神州合法发售。自一九八九年起,象牙在国贸中就被取缔了,不过国内贸易中确并从未明确命令禁绝。在京都的一家炫指标市井里,其经营炫丽着他的标价显示:一件有三13个象牙球以大套小组成的尺寸为二个足球大小的象牙雕刻品,各类象牙球都进行了复杂的探讨并能独立运动。那是一种古老的精雕细刻工艺的三个例子,同临时候也是八个还未有前程的工艺。从十7月1日开班,中中原人民共和国防止了象牙的贩卖,最终一家象牙雕刻工厂和公司也被关闭,此中法国首都的那家也包括在内。

澳门新普京下载 3

If it is a shock, it is a pleasant one. As China gets richer it is
taking the environment more seriously (see article). On balance, that
benefits everyone.

CHRISTOPHER JOYCE,BYLINE: Wildlife experts thought that an international
ban on ivory trade in1989 would slow or even stop the killing of
elephants for their tusks.

对此因中华夏族民共和国和谐的口味(原因)变成的情形难点,那毫不中中原人民共和国政党采纳调整格局的独此一家别无分店事例。前任篮球歌手大姚曾倡交涉老董的三个运动,扶持减削大家对好吃的鱼翅汤的须要。干鱼翅的进口总的数量从二零一五年的4800公吨降至2015的20公吨。同不日常间,政坛还禁绝官员舞会上食用鱼翅汤,而且禁销其余面临消亡的可食用的物种,比方古板中药中利用的穿山甲(学名:Manis pentadactyla卡塔尔鳞片。

但真实情状其实否则,实际上,盗猎问题变得进一层严格。最根本的原由是出于那条禁令未将1987年禁令颁发从前取得的旧象牙列为禁止。所以形成了盗猎者仍在猎杀大象,只是将新象牙(做旧)冒充为1989年事情未发生前的象牙举行官方交易。John·罗宾逊一直在野生动物财富保养组织专门的工作。据她描述,在北美洲选取的阻断象牙来源必要的做法不是很成功。

Indeed sometimes it is China’s modernisation that has the biggest
environmental impact—as the third of the recent changes shows. China is
not only the world’s biggest emitter of carbon, but the world’s largest
recycler, treating just over half of exported plastic waste. Recycling,
for all its benefits, is a filthy business. In one town that specialises
in recycling used electronics, 80% of children were found to have excess
lead in their blood. On January 1st China banned the import of 24
categories of waste, including household plastics. This should improve
its own environment but is a problem in countries such as Britain which
send China rubbish for processing. The head of the UK Recycling
Association called it “a huge blow for us”.

ROBINSON:当然,中中原人民共和国只要甘休国内的象牙交易将会发生庞大的影响。毕竟中中原人民共和国是世界上最大的象牙贸易市镇。

中原的行路犹如起到了预想的法力。Kenya仁慈组织的一份关于“拯救大象”的研商评释,在中黄炎子孙民共和国,一市斤高素质的象牙,其平平均价格值已经从前年的2100美元减低到二零一七年的730新币(如图所示)。刚刚起功效的禁令很恐怕会更加的收缩象牙的价位。如今,大象依然在被大量杀戮,那很只怕是因为象牙标价的减弱倒逼偷猎者必需捕杀越来越多的大象本领博取同样的受益。然则象牙的通胀最后一定会稳中有降偷猎者的理念。

Almost a million elephants roamed Africa 25 years ago. Now there are
fewer than half that many. The main reason – ivory. Despite a ban on
ivory trade, poachers continue to kill elephants for their tusks.
Now,China which is the destination for most of that ivory, will shut
down its market.

Part 1-Translation

JOYCE: And the biggest demand for ivory has been in China.

China is far from an animal-welfare paradise. By coincidence, on the day
ivory sales were banned, the country cut the duty on imported donkey
skin from 5% to 2%,the second of this year’s changes. Gelatine from
boiled donkey hide is another ingredient in traditional medicine (skins,
probably destined for the Chinese market, are pictured in Kenya).
Campaigners say the action threatens the world’s donkey population,
though it is hard to see how, given that there were 44m donkeys in 2016
and their numbers are rising. All things being equal, more demand from
China ought to translate into more donkeys raised. But it is certainly
pushing up the price of donkey-hide gelatine (see chart).

“本译文所涉翻译行为已赢得文章权人许可,本译文所涉法律后果均由自身承当。本身亦同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的看护后,删除文章。”

The environment——Tusks, skins and waste recycling

JOYCE: The Chinese government has laid out an extensive plan that
includes putting ivory carvers to work on existing museum pieces or
other projects.

象牙、毛皮和垃圾循环使用

JOHN
ROBINSON(John·罗宾森):假如大家要消除盗猎难点来讲,那么需求难题是必须求拍卖的。

澳门新普京下载 4

25年前,大致有上百万头大象在北美洲大陆漫游。近日北美洲大象的数额连那时的四分之二都达不到了。其原因在于——象牙。固然象牙交易被明确命令禁绝,但盗猎者仍在相连猎杀大象以博取它们的长牙。以后,作为大多数象牙货物运输指标地的华夏将关门象牙贸易商场。

宇宙不必因中华夏族民共和国的优质而焦炙

BYLINE(签字:克Rees多夫·Joyce):野生动物学家们以为1987年的国际象牙交易禁令将会使猎杀大象获取象牙的行为减缓以至甘休。

境内象牙生意的关门(第二个更换)应追溯到二零一五年,时任美利哥总理的奥巴马与中中原人民共和国的president,Xi之间签订的二个签订。他们承诺“基本全部取缔”象牙交易。二〇一五年,U.S.除了个别有所百余年历史的象牙古玩之外,按约定幸免了象牙交易。中华夏族民共和国在2017开春也关闭了二分之一五的象牙雕琢生产车间,剩余的也在不久随后被关闭。毫无疑问,不合法出卖象牙雕琢照旧在实行着。2017年,Hong Kong首席营业官搜查缉获了7公吨的私下象牙,那也是30年以来最大的叁回地下出卖象牙。受独立监禁的香江象牙市集近年来仍未关闭,可是忖度在2022年以前也同样会被防止。

JOYCE:中中原人民共和国政党现已拿出了一套涉及极广的解决方案,蕴含布署象牙雕刻的歌星到现有的局地博物院里去,在里边的局地展馆或其余一些门类中延续从事雕刻职业。

CHRISTOPHER JOYCE,

JOYCE: NowChinahas agreed to close down that legal trade by the end of

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